nitunit - executes the unit tests from Nit source files.
nitunit [options] FILE...
Unit testing in Nit can be achieved in two ways:
DocUnitsin code comments or in markdown files
TestSuiteswith test unit files
DocUnits are executable pieces of code found in the documentation of groups, modules,
classes and properties.
They are used for documentation purpose, they should be kept simple and illustrative.
More advanced unit testing can be done using TestSuites.
DocUnits can also be used in any markdown files.
TestSuites are test files coupled to a tested module.
They contain a list of test methods called TestCase.
DocUnits are blocks of executable code placed in comments of modules, classes and properties.
The execution can be verified using
Example with a class:
module foo # var foo = new Foo # assert foo.bar == 10 class Foo var bar = 10 end
Everything used in the test must be declared. To test a method you have to instantiate its class:
module foo # var foo = new Foo # assert foo.bar == 10 class Foo # var foo = new Foo # assert foo.baz(1, 2) == 3 fun baz(a, b: Int) do return a + b end
In a single piece of documentation, each docunit is considered a part of a single module, thus regrouped when tested. Therefore, it is possible (and recommended) to split docunits in small parts if it make the explanation easier.
# Some example of grouped docunits # # Declare and initialize a variable `a`. # # var a = 1 # # So the value of `a` can be used # # assert a == 1 # # even in complex operations # # assert a + 1 == 2 fun foo do end
Sometime, some blocks of code has to be included in documentation but not considered by
Those blocks are distinguished by their tagged fences (untagged fences or fences tagged
nit are considered to be docunits).
# Some ASCII drawing # # ~~~~raw # @< # <__) # ~~~~ fun foo do end
The special fence-tag
nitish could also be used to indicate pseudo-nit that will be ignored by nitunit but highlighted by nitdoc.
nitish piece of code can be used to enclose examples that cannot compile or that one do not want to be automatically executed.
# Some pseudo-nit # # ~~~~nitish # var a: Int = someting # # ... # if a == 1 then something else something-else # ~~~~ # # Some code to not try to execute automatically # # ~~~~nitish # system("rm -rf /") # ~~~~
nitunit command is used to test Nit files:
$ nitunit foo.nit
Groups (directories) can be given to test the documentation of the group and of all its Nit files:
$ nitunit lib/foo
Finally, standard markdown documents can be checked with:
$ nitunit foo.md
When testing, the environment variable
NIT_TESTING is set to
This flag can be used by libraries and program to prevent (or limit) the execution of dangerous pieces of code.
# NIT_TESTING is automatically set. # # assert "NIT_TESTING".environ == "true"
TestSuites are Nit modules that define a set of TestCases.
A test suite is a module that uses the annotation
It is common that a test suite focuses on testing a single module.
In this case, the name of the test suite is often
foo.nit is the tested module.
The structure of a test suite is the following:
# test suite for module `foo` module test_foo is test import foo # can be intrude to test private things class TestFoo test # test case for `foo::Foo::baz` fun baz is test do var subject = new Foo assert subject.baz(1, 2) == 3 end end
Test suite can be executed using the same
$ nitunit foo.nit
nitunit will execute a test for each method with the
test annotation in a class
also annotated with
test so multiple tests can be executed for a single method:
class TestFoo test fun baz_1 is test do var subject = new Foo assert subject.baz(1, 2) == 3 end fun baz_2 is test do var subject = new Foo assert subject.baz(1, -2) == -1 end end
Black Box Testing
Sometimes, it is easier to validate a
TestCase by comparing its output with a text file containing the expected result.
For each TestCase
test_bar of a TestSuite
test_mod.nit, a corresponding file with the expected output is looked for:
"test_mod.sav/test_bar.res". I.e. test-cases grouped by test-suites.
This is the default and is useful if there is a lot of test-suites and test-cases in a directory
"sav/test_bar.res". I.e. all test-cases grouped in a common sub-directory.
Useful if there is a lot of test-suites OR test-cases in a directory.
"test_bar.res" raw in the directory.
Useful is there is a few test-suites and test-cases in a directory.
All 3 are exclusive. If more than one exists, the test-case is failed.
If a corresponding file then the output of the test-case is compared with the file.
diff(1) command is used to perform the comparison.
The test is failed if non-zero is returned by
module test_mod is test class TestFoo test fun bar is test do print "Hello!" end end
If no corresponding
.res file exists, then the output of the TestCase is ignored.
To helps the management of the expected results, the option
--autosav can be used to automatically create and update them.
TestSuites also provide annotations to configure the test run:
after annotations can be added to methods that must be called before/after each test case.
They can be used to factorize repetitive tasks:
class TestFoo test var subject: Foo is noinit # Method executed before each test fun set_up is before do subject = new Foo end fun baz_1 is test do assert subject.baz(1, 2) == 3 end fun baz_2 is test do assert subject.baz(1, -2) == -1 end end
When using custom test attributes, a empty init must be declared to allow automatic test running.
At class level,
after_all annotations can be set on methods that must be called before/after all the test cases in the class:
class TestFoo test var subject: Foo is noinit # Method executed before all tests in the class fun set_up is before_all do subject = new Foo end fun baz_1 is test do assert subject.baz(1, 2) == 3 end fun baz_2 is test do assert subject.baz(1, -2) == -1 end end
after_all annotations can also be set on methods that must be called before/after each test suite when declared at top level:
module test_bdd_connector import bdd_connector # Testing the bdd_connector class TestConnector test # test cases using a server end # Method executed before testing the module fun setup_db is before_all do # start server before all test cases end # Method executed after testing the module fun teardown_db is after_all do # stop server after all test cases end
When dealing with multiple test suites, niunit allows you to import other test suites to factorize your tests:
module test_bdd_users import test_bdd_connector # Testing the user table class TestUsersTable test # test cases using the db server from `test_bdd_connector` end fun setup_table is before_all do # create user table end fun teardown_table is after_all do # drop user table end
after* annotations are linearized and called in different ways.
before*methods are called from the least specific to the most specific
after*methods are called from the most specific to the least specific
In the previous example, the execution order would be:
all test cases from test_bdd_users
Accessing the test suite environment
NIT_TESTING_PATH environment variable contains the current test suite
Nitunit define this variable before the execution of each test suite.
It can be used to access files based on the current test suite location:
class TestWithPath test fun test_suite_path do assert "NIT_TESTING_PATH".environ != "" end end
Generating test suites
Write test suites for big modules can be a repetitive and boring task...
To make it easier,
nitunit can generate test skeletons for Nit modules:
$ nitunit --gen-suite foo.nit
This will generate the test suite
test_foo containing test case stubs for all public
methods found in
Process also imported modules.
By default, only the modules indicated on the command line are tested.
--full option, all imported modules (even those in standard) are also precessed.
Output name (default is 'nitunit.xml').
nitunit produces a XML file compatible with JUnit.
Working directory (default is 'nitunit.out').
In order to execute the tests, nit files are generated then compiled and executed in the giver working directory.
In case of success, the directory is removed. In case of failure, it is kept as is so files can be investigated.
nitc compiler to use.
By default, nitunit tries to locate the
nitc program with the environment variable
NITC or heuristics.
The option is used to indicate a specific nitc binary.
Does not compile and run tests.
Only run test case with name that match pattern.
Automatically create/update .res files for black box testing.
If a black block test fails because a difference between the expected result and the current result then the expected result file is updated (and the test is passed).
If a test-case of a test-suite passes but that some output is generated, then an expected result file is created.
It is expected that the created/updated files are checked since the tests are considered passed.
A VCS like
git is often a good tool to check the creation and modification of those files.
Disable time information in XML.
This is used to have reproducible XML results.
This option is automatically activated if
NIT_TESTING is set.
Generate test suite skeleton for a module.
Force test generation even if file exists.
Any existing test suite will be overwritten.
Also generate test case for private methods.
Only display the skeleton, do not write any file.
Indicate the specific Nit compiler executable to use. See
The environment variable
NIT_TESTING is set to
true during the execution of program tests.
Some libraries of programs can use it to produce specific reproducible results; or just to exit their executions.
Unit-tests may unset this environment variable to retrieve the original behavior of such piece of software.
In order to maximize reproducibility,
SRAND is set to 0.
This make the pseudo-random generator no random at all.
Sys::srand for details.
To retrieve the randomness, unit-tests may unset this environment variable then call
Parallel executions can cause some race collisions on named resources (e.g. DB table names).
To solve this issue,
NIT_TESTING_ID is initialized with a distinct integer identifier that can be used to give unique names to resources.
rand is not a recommended way to get a distinct identifier because its randomness is disabled by default. See
Only available for test suites. Contains the module test suite path.