Input and output streams of characters

Introduced classes

class BytesReader

core :: BytesReader

Read from bytes in memory
class BytesWriter

core :: BytesWriter

Write to bytes in memory
abstract class Duplex

core :: Duplex

A Stream that can be written to and read from
class IOError

core :: IOError

Any kind of error that could be produced by an operation on Streams
class LineIterator

core :: LineIterator

Iterator returned by Reader::each_line.
abstract class PollableReader

core :: PollableReader

Reader capable of declaring if readable without blocking
abstract class Reader

core :: Reader

A Stream that can be read from
abstract class Stream

core :: Stream

Any kind of stream to read/write/both to or from a source
class StringReader

core :: StringReader

Stream reading from a String source
class StringWriter

core :: StringWriter

Stream writing to a String
interface Writable

core :: Writable

Things that can be efficienlty written to a Writer
abstract class Writer

core :: Writer

A Stream that can be written to

Redefined classes

redef class Bytes

core :: stream $ Bytes

A buffer containing Byte-manipulation facilities
redef abstract class Text

core :: stream $ Text

High-level abstraction for all text representations

All class definitions

redef class Bytes

core :: stream $ Bytes

A buffer containing Byte-manipulation facilities
class BytesReader

core $ BytesReader

Read from bytes in memory
class BytesWriter

core $ BytesWriter

Write to bytes in memory
abstract class Duplex

core $ Duplex

A Stream that can be written to and read from
class IOError

core $ IOError

Any kind of error that could be produced by an operation on Streams
class LineIterator

core $ LineIterator

Iterator returned by Reader::each_line.
abstract class PollableReader

core $ PollableReader

Reader capable of declaring if readable without blocking
abstract class Reader

core $ Reader

A Stream that can be read from
abstract class Stream

core $ Stream

Any kind of stream to read/write/both to or from a source
class StringReader

core $ StringReader

Stream reading from a String source
class StringWriter

core $ StringWriter

Stream writing to a String
redef abstract class Text

core :: stream $ Text

High-level abstraction for all text representations
interface Writable

core $ Writable

Things that can be efficienlty written to a Writer
abstract class Writer

core $ Writer

A Stream that can be written to
package_diagram core::stream stream core::error error core::stream->core::error core\>codecs\> codecs core::stream->core\>codecs\> core\>text\> text core::error->core\>text\> core\>codecs\>->core\>text\> core core core\>codecs\>->core ...core\>text\> ... ...core\>text\>->core\>text\> ...core ... ...core->core core::time time core::time->core::stream core::protocol protocol core::protocol->core::stream core::file file core::file->core::time core::file... ... core::file...->core::file core::core core core::core->core::protocol core::core... ... core::core...->core::core


module abstract_collection

core :: abstract_collection

Abstract collection classes and services.
module abstract_text

core :: abstract_text

Abstract class for manipulation of sequences of characters
module array

core :: array

This module introduces the standard array structure.
module bytes

core :: bytes

Services for byte streams and arrays
module circular_array

core :: circular_array

Efficient data structure to access both end of the sequence.
module codec_base

core :: codec_base

Base for codecs to use with streams
module collection

core :: collection

This module define several collection classes.
module fixed_ints

core :: fixed_ints

Basic integers of fixed-precision
module fixed_ints_text

core :: fixed_ints_text

Text services to complement fixed_ints
module flat

core :: flat

All the array-based text representations
module hash_collection

core :: hash_collection

Introduce HashMap and HashSet.
module iso8859_1

core :: iso8859_1

Codec for ISO8859-1 I/O
module kernel

core :: kernel

Most basic classes and methods.
module list

core :: list

This module handle double linked lists
module math

core :: math

Mathematical operations
module native

core :: native

Native structures for text and bytes
module range

core :: range

Module for range of discrete objects.
module ropes

core :: ropes

Tree-based representation of a String.
module sorter

core :: sorter

This module contains classes used to compare things and sorts arrays.
module text

core :: text

All the classes and methods related to the manipulation of text entities
module union_find

core :: union_find

union–find algorithm using an efficient disjoint-set data structure
module utf8

core :: utf8

Codec for UTF-8 I/O


module codecs

core :: codecs

Group module for all codec-related manipulations
module error

core :: error

Standard error-management infrastructure.


module protocol

core :: protocol

module time

core :: time

Management of time and dates


module a_star

a_star :: a_star

A* pathfinding in graphs
module a_star-m


module abstract_tree

trees :: abstract_tree

Introduce tree structures abstraction
module activities

android :: activities

Android Activities wrapper
module actors

actors :: actors

Abstraction of the actors concepts
module agent_simulation

actors :: agent_simulation

a "Framework" to make Multi-Agent Simulations in Nit
module ai

ai :: ai

Simple toolkit for artificial intelligence.
module all

sdl2 :: all

Unites the main sdl2 module and its sister library sdl2::image
module android

android :: android

Android services and implementation of app.nit
module android19

gamnit :: android19

Variation using features from Android API 19
module angles

geometry :: angles

Angle related service using Float to represent an angle in radians
module api

github :: api

Nit object oriented interface to Github api.
module app

app :: app

app.nit is a framework to create cross-platform applications
module app

ios :: app

Basic structure for Nit apps on iOS
module app_base

app :: app_base

Base of the app.nit framework, defines App
module app_kit

cocoa :: app_kit

The Application Kit provides services to create GUI
module array_debug

array_debug :: array_debug

Exposes functions to help profile or debug Arrays.
module assets

app :: assets

Portable services to load resources from the assets folder
module assets

ios :: assets

Implementation of app::assets
module assets

android :: assets

Implementation of app::assets
module assets_and_resources

android :: assets_and_resources

Android Assets and Resources Management
module at_boot

android :: at_boot

Import this module to launch Service at device boot
module attributes

sax :: attributes

Interface for a list of XML attributes.
module attributes_impl

sax :: attributes_impl

Default implementation of the Attributes interface.
module audio

ios :: audio

iOS implementation of app::audio using AVAudioPlayer
module audio

linux :: audio

app::audio implementation for GNU/Linux using SDL2 mixer
module audio

app :: audio

Services to load and play Sound and Music from the assets folder
module audio

android :: audio

Android audio services, wraps a part of android audio API
module aware

android :: aware

Android compatibility module
module backtrack

ai :: backtrack

Basic framework for active backtrack solver
module base64

base64 :: base64

Offers the base 64 encoding and decoding algorithms
module basic_ciphers

crypto :: basic_ciphers

Basic cryptographic ciphers and utilities.
module bcm2835

bcm2835 :: bcm2835

Services to control the bcm2835 chipset used in the Raspberry Pi
module binary

binary :: binary

Read and write binary data with any Reader and Writer
module bintree

trees :: bintree

Binary Tree data-structure
module bitmap

bitmap :: bitmap

The Bitmap class represents a 24-bit bitmap image. An instance can be constructed
module bktree

trees :: bktree

Implementation of BKTree
module bmfont

gamnit :: bmfont

Parse Angel Code BMFont format and draw text
module bootstrap

html :: bootstrap

HTML templates for Bootstrap components.
module boxes

geometry :: boxes

Provides interfaces and classes to represent basic geometry needs.
module bucketed_game

bucketed_game :: bucketed_game

Game framework with an emphasis on efficient event coordination
module bundle

android :: bundle

A mapping class of String to various value types used by the
module bytes

crypto :: bytes

Mix of utilities and services related to bytes
module c

c :: c

Structures and services for compatibility with the C language
module cache

github :: cache

Enable caching on Github API accesses.
module caching

serialization :: caching

Services for caching serialization engines
module camera_control

gamnit :: camera_control

Simple camera control for user, as the method accept_scroll_and_zoom
module camera_control_android

gamnit :: camera_control_android

Two fingers camera manipulation, pinch to zoom and slide to scroll
module camera_control_linux

gamnit :: camera_control_linux

Mouse wheel and middle mouse button to control camera
module cameras

gamnit :: cameras

Camera services producing Model-View-Projection matrices
module cameras_cache

gamnit :: cameras_cache

Cache the Matrix produced by Camera::mvp_matrix
module cardboard

gamnit :: cardboard

Update the orientation of world_camera at each frame using the head position given by android::cardboard
module cardboard

android :: cardboard

Services from the Google Cardboard SDK for virtual reality on Android
module cartesian

cartesian :: cartesian

Memory-efficient Cartesian products on heterogeneous collections.
module chameneosredux

actors :: chameneosredux

Example implemented from "The computer Language Benchmarks Game" - Chameneos-Redux
module checker

dom :: checker

Simple XML validity checker using the dom module
module client

gamnit :: client

Client-side network services for games and such
module clusters

dot :: clusters

Example from
module cocoa

cocoa :: cocoa

Cocoa API, the development layer of OS X
module cocoa_extern_types

cocoa :: cocoa_extern_types

Test extern classes from the Cocoa framework and extern factories
module cocoa_message_box

cocoa :: cocoa_message_box

Simple message box using the Cocoa framework
module collections

java :: collections

Basic Java collections
module combinations

combinations :: combinations

Memory-efficient Cartesian products, combinations and permutation on collections.
module common

gamnit :: common

Services common to the client and server modules
module commonmark_gen

markdown2 :: commonmark_gen

Generate Nitunit tests from commonmark specification.
module concurrent_array_and_barrier

pthreads :: concurrent_array_and_barrier

A basic usage example of the modules pthreads and pthreads::cocurrent_collections
module concurrent_collections

pthreads :: concurrent_collections

Introduces thread-safe concurrent collections
module config

config :: config

Configuration options for nit tools and apps
module console

console :: console

Defines some ANSI Terminal Control Escape Sequences.
module content_handler

sax :: content_handler

Receives notification of the logical content of a document.
module core

core :: core

Standard classes and methods used by default by Nit programs and libraries.
module counter

counter :: counter

Simple numerical statistical analysis and presentation
module cpp

cpp :: cpp

Services for compatibility with C++ code and libraries
module crapto

crapto :: crapto

Cryptographic attacks and utilities.
module crypto

crypto :: crypto

Mix of all things cryptography-related
module csv

csv :: csv

CSV document handling.
module curl

curl :: curl

Data transfer powered by the native curl library
module curl_http

curl :: curl_http

Example use of the Curl module
module curl_json

neo4j :: curl_json

cURL requests compatible with the JSON REST APIs.
module curl_rest

curl :: curl_rest

module curses

curses :: curses

Curses for Nit
module custom_serialization

serialization :: custom_serialization

Example of an ad hoc serializer that is tailored to transform business specific objects into customized representation.
module dalvik

android :: dalvik

Java related services specific to Android and its Dalvik VM
module data_store

linux :: data_store

app::data_store implementation on GNU/Linux
module data_store

ios :: data_store

Implements app::data_store using NSUserDefaults
module data_store

app :: data_store

Key/value storage services
module data_store

android :: data_store

Implements app::data_store using shared_preferences
module date

date :: date

Services to manipulate Date, Time and DateTime
module decl_handler

sax :: decl_handler

SAX2 extension handler for DTD declaration events.
module decorators

markdown :: decorators

Decorators for markdown parsing.
module depth

gamnit :: depth

Framework for 3D games in Nit
module depth_core

gamnit :: depth_core

Base entities of the depth 3D game framework
module deriving

deriving :: deriving

Automatic derivable implementations of standard basic methods.
module digraph

graph :: digraph

Implementation of directed graphs, also called digraphs.
module display

gamnit :: display

Abstract display services
module display_android

gamnit :: display_android

Gamnit display implementation for Android
module display_ios

gamnit :: display_ios

Gamnit display implementation for iOS
module display_linux

gamnit :: display_linux

Gamnit display implementation for GNU/Linux using egl, sdl and x11
module dom

dom :: dom

Easy XML DOM parser
module dot

dot :: dot

Dot rendering library
module drop_privileges

privileges :: drop_privileges

Example using the privileges module to drop privileges from root
module dtd_handler

sax :: dtd_handler

Receives notification of basic DTD-related events.
module dynamic

json :: dynamic

Dynamic interface to read values from JSON strings
module dynamic_resolution

gamnit :: dynamic_resolution

Virtual screen with a resolution independent from the real screen
module egl

egl :: egl

Interface between rendering APIs (OpenGL, OpenGL ES, etc.) and the native windowing system.
module egl

gamnit :: egl

Use of EGL to implement Gamnit on GNU/Linux and Android
module emscripten

emscripten :: emscripten

Platform for the emscripten framework
module engine_tools

serialization :: engine_tools

Advanced services for serialization engines
module english_utils

crapto :: english_utils

English language utilities for cryptographic purposes.
module entity_resolver

sax :: entity_resolver

Basic interface for resolving entities.
module environ

core :: environ

Access to the environment variables of the process
module error

json :: error

Intro JsonParseError which is exposed by all JSON reading APIs
module error

neo4j :: error

Errors thrown by the neo4j library.
module error_handler

sax :: error_handler

Basic interface for SAX error handlers.
module event_queue

event_queue :: event_queue

Register, update and discard events in a timeline.
module events

sdl2 :: events

SDL 2 events and related services
module events

github :: events

Events are emitted by Github Hooks.
module example_angular

popcorn :: example_angular

This is an example of how to use angular.js with popcorn
module example_vsm

vsm :: example_vsm

Example using a FileIndex
module exec

core :: exec

Invocation and management of operating system sub-processes.
module ext

sax :: ext

Interfaces to optional SAX2 handlers.
module ext

posix :: ext

Services not defined in POSIX but provided by most implementations
module ext

msgpack :: ext

Application specific MessagePack extension MsgPackExt
module extra

pthreads :: extra

Offers some POSIX threads services that are not available on all platforms
module extra

curl :: extra

Shortcut services for scripts: http_get and http_download
module fannkuchredux

actors :: fannkuchredux

Example implemented from "The computer Language Benchmarks Game" - Fannkuch-Redux
module fca

fca :: fca

Formal Concept Analysis
module ffi_support

java :: ffi_support

Core supporting services for the FFI with Java
module file

core :: file

File manipulations (create, read, write, etc.)
module file_server

nitcorn :: file_server

Provides the FileServer action, which is a standard and minimal file server
module flat

gamnit :: flat

Simple API for 2D games, built around Sprite and App::update
module flat_core

gamnit :: flat_core

Core services for the flat API for 2D games
module font

gamnit :: font

Abstract font drawing services, implemented by bmfont and tileset
module for_abuse

for_abuse :: for_abuse

Service management through the for control structure.
module foundation

cocoa :: foundation

The Foundation Kit provides basic Objective-C classes and structures
module functional

functional :: functional

Functional types and functional API for Iterator
module functional_gen

functional :: functional_gen

This module is only used to generate functional_types.nit
module functional_types

functional :: functional_types

This module provides functional type to represents various function forms.
module game

android :: game

Android services and implementation of app.nit for gamnit and mnit
module gamepad

android :: gamepad

Support for gamepad events (over Bluetooth or USB)
module gamnit

gamnit :: gamnit

Game and multimedia framework for Nit
module gamnit_android

gamnit :: gamnit_android

Support services for Gamnit on Android
module gamnit_ios

gamnit :: gamnit_ios

Support services for gamnit on iOS
module gamnit_linux

gamnit :: gamnit_linux

Support services for Gamnit on GNU/Linux
module gdk

gtk :: gdk

Services from GDK
module gdk_enums

gtk :: gdk_enums

module gen_nit

gen_nit :: gen_nit

Support to generate and otherwise manipulate Nit code
module geometry

geometry :: geometry

Provides interfaces and classes to represent basic geometry needs.
module gettext

gettext :: gettext

Internationalization of Strings using gettext library
module github

github :: github

Nit wrapper for Github API
module glesv2

glesv2 :: glesv2

OpenGL graphics rendering library for embedded systems, version 2.0
module glkit

ios :: glkit

GLKit services to create an OpenGL ES context on iOS
module gmp

gmp :: gmp

Multi precision integer and rational number using gmp lib
module graph

neo4j :: graph

Provides an interface for services on a Neo4j graphs.
module gtk

gtk :: gtk

GTK+ widgets and services
module gtk_core

gtk :: gtk_core

Classes and services to use libGTK widgets
module gtk_enums

gtk :: gtk_enums

module hash_debug

hash_debug :: hash_debug

Inject behavior analysis to hash-collections (HashMap, HashSet, etc.)
module hello

dot :: hello

Example from
module hello_cocoa

cocoa :: hello_cocoa

Hello world using the Cocoa framework
module hello_ios

ios :: hello_ios

Simple iOS app with a single label
module helpers

sax :: helpers

Contains "helper" classes, including support for bootstrapping SAX-based applications.
module hooks

github :: hooks

Github hook event listening with nitcorn.
module htcpcp_server

nitcorn :: htcpcp_server

A server that implements HTCPCP. At the moment there are no additions.
module html

html :: html

HTML output facilities
module html_page

html :: html_page

module http_errors

nitcorn :: http_errors

Offers ErrorTemplate to display error pages
module http_request

ios :: http_request

Implementation of app::http_request for iOS
module http_request

app :: http_request

HTTP request services: AsyncHttpRequest and Text::http_get
module http_request

nitcorn :: http_request

Provides the HttpRequest class and services to create it
module http_request

linux :: http_request

Implementation of app::http_request using GDK and Curl
module http_request

android :: http_request

Android implementation of app:http_request
module http_request_buffer

nitcorn :: http_request_buffer

Http request parsing for buffered inputs.
module http_request_example

app :: http_request_example

Example for the app::http_request main service AsyncHttpRequest
module http_response

nitcorn :: http_response

Provides the HttpResponse class and http_status_codes
module image

sdl2 :: image

Services of the SDL_image 2.0 library
module ini

ini :: ini

Read and write INI configuration files
module input

bcm2835 :: input

module input

mnit :: input

Defines abstract classes for user and general inputs to the application.
module input_events

android :: input_events

Pointer and hardware key events
module input_ios

gamnit :: input_ios

Gamnit event support for iOS
module input_source

sax :: input_source

A single input source for an XML entity.
module inspect

serialization :: inspect

Refine Serializable::inspect to show more useful information
module intent

android :: intent

Services allowing to launch activities and start/stop services using
module intent_api10

android :: intent_api10

Services allowing to launch activities and start/stop services using
module intent_api11

android :: intent_api11

Refines intent module to add API 11 services
module intent_api12

android :: intent_api12

Refines intent module to add API 12 services
module intent_api14

android :: intent_api14

Refines intent module to add API 14 services
module intent_api15

android :: intent_api15

Refines intent module to add API 15 services
module intent_api16

android :: intent_api16

Refines intent module to add API 16 services
module intent_api17

android :: intent_api17

Refines intent module to add API 17 services
module intent_api18

android :: intent_api18

Refines intent module to add API 18 services
module intent_api19

android :: intent_api19

Refines intent module to add API 19 services
module io

java :: io

Services from the package
module ios

ios :: ios

iOS platform support
module iter_extras

functional :: iter_extras

This modules provides a new functional interface for Iterator.
module java

java :: java

Supporting services for the FFI with Java and to access Java libraries
module jointask_example

pthreads :: jointask_example

Simple example of joinable task using threadpool
module json

json :: json

Read and write JSON formatted text using the standard serialization services
module json_graph_store

neo4j :: json_graph_store

Provides JSON as a mean to store graphs.
module jvm

jvm :: jvm

Java Virtual Machine invocation API and others services from the JNI C API
module keys

gamnit :: keys

Simple service keeping track of which keys are currently pressed
module landscape

gamnit :: landscape

Lock the application in the landscape orientation
module landscape

android :: landscape

Lock the application in the landscape orientation
module langannot

gettext :: langannot

Sample module showing the use of the i18n annotation
module lexer

saxophonit :: lexer

SAXophoNit’s lexer
module lexical_handler

sax :: lexical_handler

SAX2 extension handler for lexical events.
module lexpr

logic :: lexpr

Logical expression.
module libevent

libevent :: libevent

Low-level wrapper around the libevent library to manage events on file descriptors
module libevent_example

libevent :: libevent_example

Minimal usage example of libevent
module limit_fps

gamnit :: limit_fps

Frame-rate control for applications
module linux

linux :: linux

Implementation of app.nit for the Linux platform
module load_image

android :: load_image

Low-level services to load pixel data from the assets
module loader

github :: loader

module log

nitcorn :: log

Services inserting a timestamp in all prints and to log each requests
module log

android :: log

Advanced Android logging services
module logger

logger :: logger

A simple logger for Nit
module logic

logic :: logic

First-order logic data structure and algorithm.
module macro

template :: macro

String templating using macros.
module man

markdown :: man

Simple groff decorator restricted for manpages.
module mandelbrot

actors :: mandelbrot

Example implemented from "The computer Language Benchmarks Game" - Mandelbrot
module markdown

markdown :: markdown

Markdown parsing.
module markdown_ast

markdown2 :: markdown_ast

Markdown AST representation
module markdown_block_parsing

markdown2 :: markdown_block_parsing

Markdown blocks parsing
module markdown_github

markdown2 :: markdown_github

Markdown Github mode
module markdown_html_rendering

markdown2 :: markdown_html_rendering

HTML rendering of Markdown documents
module markdown_inline_parsing

markdown2 :: markdown_inline_parsing

Parser for inline markdown
module markdown_latex_rendering

markdown2 :: markdown_latex_rendering

LaTeX rendering of Markdown documents
module markdown_man_rendering

markdown2 :: markdown_man_rendering

Manpages rendering of Markdown documents
module markdown_md_rendering

markdown2 :: markdown_md_rendering

Markdown rendering of Markdown documents
module markdown_rendering

markdown2 :: markdown_rendering

Markdown document rendering
module matrix

matrix :: matrix

Services for matrices of Float values
module md5

md5 :: md5

Native MD5 digest implementation as Text::md5
module media_types

nitcorn :: media_types

Services to identify Internet media types (or MIME types, Content-types)
module meta

meta :: meta

Simple user-defined meta-level to manipulate types of instances as object.
module minimal

sdl2 :: minimal

An example to test and demonstrate the sdl2 lib with image and events
module mixer

sdl2 :: mixer

SDL2 mixer with sample/sounds and music
module model_dimensions

gamnit :: model_dimensions

Dimensions related services for Model and Mesh
module model_parser_base

gamnit :: model_parser_base

Services to parse models from a text description
module mongodb

mongodb :: mongodb

MongoDB Nit Driver.
module more_collections

more_collections :: more_collections

Highly specific, but useful, collections-related classes.
module more_lights

gamnit :: more_lights

More implementations of Light
module more_materials

gamnit :: more_materials

Various material implementations
module more_meshes

gamnit :: more_meshes

More simple geometric meshes
module more_models

gamnit :: more_models

Services to load models from the assets folder
module mpd

mpd :: mpd

Music Player Daemon client library
module mpi

mpi :: mpi

Implementation of the Message Passing Interface protocol by wrapping OpenMPI
module msgpack

msgpack :: msgpack

MessagePack, an efficient binary serialization format
module msgpack_to_json

msgpack :: msgpack_to_json

Convert MessagePack format to JSON
module mtl

gamnit :: mtl

Services to parse .mtl material files
module namespace_support

sax :: namespace_support

Encapsulates Namespace logic for use by applications using SAX, or internally by SAX drivers.
module native_app_glue

android :: native_app_glue

Wrapper of the Android native_app_glue framework to implement app.nit
module native_curl

curl :: native_curl

Binding of C libCurl which allow us to interact with network.
module native_gmp

gmp :: native_gmp

Low-level GMP features
module native_mongodb

mongodb :: native_mongodb

Native wrapper for the MongoDB C Driver
module native_notification

android :: native_notification

Native Java classes for notifications
module native_postgres

postgresql :: native_postgres

A native wrapper ove the postgres c api
module native_sqlite3

sqlite3 :: native_sqlite3

Low-level Sqlite3 features
module native_ui

android :: native_ui

Native services from the android.view and android.widget namespaces
module neo4j

neo4j :: neo4j

Neo4j connector through its JSON REST API using curl.
module network

gamnit :: network

Easy client/server logic for games and simple distributed applications
module nit_activity

android :: nit_activity

Core implementation of app.nit on Android using a custom Java entry point
module nitcc_runtime

nitcc_runtime :: nitcc_runtime

Runtime library required by parsers and lexers generated by nitcc
module nitcorn

nitcorn :: nitcorn

The nitcorn Web server framework creates server-side Web apps in Nit
module nitcorn_hello_world

nitcorn :: nitcorn_hello_world

Hello World Web server example
module nitcorn_reverse_proxy

nitcorn :: nitcorn_reverse_proxy

Minimal example using a ProxyAction
module niti_runtime

niti_runtime :: niti_runtime

Runtime library to loop around the main program for each line in file-name arguments
module nitmd

markdown :: nitmd

A Markdown parser for Nit.
module nitmd

markdown2 :: nitmd

A Markdown parser for Nit.
module nlp

nlp :: nlp

Natural Language Processor based on the StanfordNLP core.
module nlp_index

nlp :: nlp_index

Example showing how to use a NLPFileIndex.
module noise

noise :: noise

Noise generators PerlinNoise and InterpolatedNoise
module notification

android :: notification

Services to show notification in the Android status bar
module obj

gamnit :: obj

Services to parse .obj geometry files
module opengles2_hello_triangle

glesv2 :: opengles2_hello_triangle

Basic example of OpenGL ES 2.0 usage using SDL 2
module opts

opts :: opts

Management of options on the command line
module ordered_tree

ordered_tree :: ordered_tree

Manipulation and presentation of ordered trees.
module pagerank

graph :: pagerank

Add PageRank computation for vertices in Digraph.
module parser

dom :: parser

XML DOM-parsing facilities
module parser_base

parser_base :: parser_base

Simple base for hand-made parsers of all kinds
module particles

gamnit :: particles

Particle effects
module perfect_hashing

perfect_hashing :: perfect_hashing

Perfect hashing and perfect numbering
module performance_analysis

performance_analysis :: performance_analysis

Services to gather information on the performance of events by categories
module pipeline

pipeline :: pipeline

Pipelined filters and operations on iterators.
module platform

ios :: platform

Triggers compilation for the iOS platform
module platform

android :: platform

Triggers compilation for the android platform
module points_and_lines

geometry :: points_and_lines

Interfaces and classes to represent basic geometry needs.
module polygon

geometry :: polygon

Convex Polygons manipulations
module pop_auth

popcorn :: pop_auth

Authentification handlers.
module pop_config

popcorn :: pop_config

Configuration file and options for Popcorn apps
module pop_handlers

popcorn :: pop_handlers

Route handlers.
module pop_json

popcorn :: pop_json

Introduce useful services for JSON REST API handlers.
module pop_repos

popcorn :: pop_repos

Repositories for data management.
module pop_routes

popcorn :: pop_routes

Internal routes representation.
module pop_sessions

popcorn :: pop_sessions

Session handlers
module pop_tasks

popcorn :: pop_tasks

Popcorn threaded tasks
module pop_templates

popcorn :: pop_templates

Template rendering for popcorn
module pop_tests

popcorn :: pop_tests

Popcorn testing services
module pop_validation

popcorn :: pop_validation

Quick and easy validation framework for Json inputs
module popcorn

popcorn :: popcorn

Application server abstraction on top of nitcorn.
module portrait

android :: portrait

Config to set the portrait orientation
module portrait

gamnit :: portrait

Lock the application in the portrait orientation
module poset

poset :: poset

Pre order sets and partial order set (ie hierarchies)
module posix

posix :: posix

Services conforming to POSIX
module postgres

postgresql :: postgres

Services to manipulate a Postgres database
module privileges

privileges :: privileges

Process privileges management utilities
module programs

gamnit :: programs

Services for graphical programs with shaders, attributes and uniforms
module progression

progression :: progression

Event-based interface to track the progression of an operation.
module projection

matrix :: projection

Services on Matrix to transform and project 3D coordinates
module prompt

prompt :: prompt

Basic services to display a prompt
module proxy

nitcorn :: proxy

Provides the ProxyAction action, which redirects requests to another interface
module pthreads

nitcorn :: pthreads

Activate the use of pthreads with nitcorn
module pthreads

pthreads :: pthreads

Main POSIX threads support and intro the classes Thread, Mutex and Barrier
module puzzle

ai :: puzzle

The N-puzzle problem, modeled naively as a SearchProblem.
module quadtree

geometry :: quadtree

QuadTree API mostly used for 2 dimensional collision detection
module queens

ai :: queens

Example of the famous eight-queens problem solved with the ai::backtrack module.
module queries

mongodb :: queries

Mongo queries framework
module rbtree

trees :: rbtree

A red–black tree is a data structure which is a type of self-balancing binary search tree.
module reactor

nitcorn :: reactor

Core of the nitcorn project, provides HttpFactory and Action
module read

msgpack :: read

Low-level read MessagePack format from Reader streams
module reader_model

saxophonit :: reader_model

Reader’s model.
module readline

readline :: readline

GNU readline library wrapper
module realtime

realtime :: realtime

Services to keep time of the wall clock time
module redef_collections

pthreads :: redef_collections

Redef some basic collections to be thread-safe
module restful

nitcorn :: restful

Support module for the nitrestful tool and the restful annotation
module restful_annot

nitcorn :: restful_annot

Example for the restful annotation documented at lib/nitcorn/restful.nit
module ropes_debug

ropes_debug :: ropes_debug

Exposes methods for debugging ropes when needed.
module rubix

rubix :: rubix

Rubix-cube modelization library
module safe

serialization :: safe

Services for safer deserialization engines
module sax

sax :: sax

Core SAX APIs.
module sax_locator

sax :: sax_locator

Interface for associating a SAX event with a document location.
module sax_locator_impl

sax :: sax_locator_impl

Provides an optional convenience implementation of Locator.
module sax_parse_exception

sax :: sax_parse_exception

Encapsulates an XML parse error or warning.
module saxophonit

saxophonit :: saxophonit

A SAX 2 parser in Nit.
module scene2d

scene2d :: scene2d

Framework for 2D management of game elements
module sdl2

sdl2 :: sdl2

Simple DirectMedia Layer (SDL) 2.0 services for easy window creation and 2D drawing
module sdl2_base

sdl2 :: sdl2_base

Basic SDL 2 features
module search

ai :: search

Basic framework for search problems and solver.
module selection

gamnit :: selection

Select Actor from a screen coordinate
module sendmail

sendmail :: sendmail

Send emails using the sendmail program
module sensors

android :: sensors

Access Android sensors
module sequential_id

neo4j :: sequential_id

Provides a sequential identification scheme for Neo4j nodes.
module serialization

serialization :: serialization

General serialization services
module serialization_common

msgpack :: serialization_common

Serialization services for serialization_write and serialization_read
module serialization_core

serialization :: serialization_core

Abstract services to serialize Nit objects to different formats
module serialization_read

json :: serialization_read

Services to read JSON: deserialize_json and JsonDeserializer
module serialization_read

msgpack :: serialization_read

Deserialize full Nit objects from MessagePack format
module serialization_write

json :: serialization_write

Services to write Nit objects to JSON strings: serialize_to_json and JsonSerializer
module serialization_write

msgpack :: serialization_write

Serialize full Nit objects to MessagePack format
module server

gamnit :: server

Server-side network services for games and such
module server_config

nitcorn :: server_config

Classes and services to configure the server
module service

android :: service

Android service support for app.nit centered around the class Service
module sessions

nitcorn :: sessions

Automated session management
module sexp

sexp :: sexp

S-Expression parsing facilities
module sha1

sha1 :: sha1

Provides methods to compute the SHA1 hash of a String
module shadow

gamnit :: shadow

Shadow mapping using a depth texture
module shared_preferences

android :: shared_preferences

Services allowing to save and load datas to internal android device
module shared_preferences_api10

android :: shared_preferences_api10

Services to save/load data using android.content.SharedPreferences for the android platform
module shared_preferences_api11

android :: shared_preferences_api11

Refines shared_preferences module to add API 11 services
module show_basedir

xdg_basedir :: show_basedir

Prints the local base directories as per the XDG Base Directory specification
module signal_handler

nitcorn :: signal_handler

Handle SIGINT and SIGTERM to close the server after all active events
module signals

signals :: signals

ANSI C signal handling
module simple

actors :: simple

A very simple example of the actor model
module simple_file_server

nitcorn :: simple_file_server

Basic file server on port 80 by default, may require root to execute
module simple_simulation

actors :: simple_simulation

Using agent_simulation by refining the Agent class to make
module socket

socket :: socket

Socket services
module socket_c

socket :: socket_c

Low-level socket functionalities
module socket_client

socket :: socket_client

Client sample using the Socket module which connect to the server sample.
module socket_server

socket :: socket_server

Server sample using the Socket module which allow client to connect
module socket_simple_server

socket :: socket_simple_server

Simple server example using a non-blocking TCPServer
module sqlite3

sqlite3 :: sqlite3

Services to manipulate a Sqlite3 database
module standard

standard :: standard

Old module implicitly imported by the old compiler.
module stanford

nlp :: stanford

Natural Language Processor based on the StanfordNLP core.
module static

json :: static

Static interface to read Nit objects from JSON strings
module stereoscopic_view

gamnit :: stereoscopic_view

Refine EulerCamera and App::frame_core_draw to get a stereoscopic view
module store

json :: store

Store and load json data.
module symbol

symbol :: symbol

Library for simple interning of strings
module syswm

sdl2 :: syswm

Window manager related SDL 2 services
module template

template :: template

Basic template system
module test_markdown

markdown2 :: test_markdown

Test suites for module markdown
module testing

saxophonit :: testing

Various utilities to help testing SAXophoNit (and SAX parsers in general).
module text_stat

text_stat :: text_stat

Injects stat-calculating functionalities to Text and its variants
module texture_atlas_parser

gamnit :: texture_atlas_parser

Tool to parse XML texture atlas and generated Nit code to access subtextures
module textures

gamnit :: textures

Load textures, create subtextures and manage their life-cycle
module thread_ring

actors :: thread_ring

Example implemented from "The computer Language Benchmarks Game" - Thread-Ring
module threaded_example

pthreads :: threaded_example

test for threaded annotation
module threadpool

pthreads :: threadpool

Introduces a minimal ThreadPool implementation using Tasks
module threadpool_example

pthreads :: threadpool_example

Simple example using threadpool
module tileset

gamnit :: tileset

Support for TileSet, TileSetFont and drawing text with TextSprites
module toast

android :: toast

Services to display a toast, a small popup on Android
module token

nitcorn :: token

Simple generate_token service, independent of the rest of the nitcorn framework
module trees

trees :: trees

General module for tree data structures
module trie

trees :: trie

A trie (or prefix tree) is a datastructure used to perform prefix searches.
module u16_string

core :: u16_string

Wrapper of ICU's UTF-16 encoded strings and conversion
module ui

linux :: ui

Implementation of the app.nit UI module for GNU/Linux
module ui

app :: ui

Portable UI controls for mobiles apps
module ui

android :: ui

Views and services to use the Android native user interface
module ui

ios :: ui

Implementation of app::ui for iOS
module ui_example

app :: ui_example

User interface example using app::ui
module ui_test

android :: ui_test

Test for app.nit's UI services
module uikit

ios :: uikit

File generated by objcwrapper
module undirected_clusters

dot :: undirected_clusters

Example from
module v3_10

gtk :: v3_10

GTK+ services added at version 3.10
module v3_4

gtk :: v3_4

module v3_6

gtk :: v3_6

GTK+ services added at version 3.6
module v3_8

gtk :: v3_8

GTK+ services added at version 3.8
module vararg_routes

nitcorn :: vararg_routes

Routes with parameters.
module vibration

android :: vibration

Vibration services for Android
module virtual_gamepad

gamnit :: virtual_gamepad

Virtual gamepad mapped to keyboard keys for quick and dirty mobile support
module vr

gamnit :: vr

VR support for gamnit depth, for Android only
module vsm

vsm :: vsm

Vector Space Model
module wallet

github :: wallet

Github OAuth tokens management
module websocket

websocket :: websocket

Adds support for a websocket connection in Nit
module websocket_server

websocket :: websocket_server

Sample module for a minimal chat server using Websockets on port 8088
module wifi

android :: wifi

Simple wrapper of the Android WiFi services
module write

msgpack :: write

Low-level write in MessagePack format to Writer streams
module x11

x11 :: x11

Services from the X11 library
module xdg_basedir

xdg_basedir :: xdg_basedir

Services for using the XDG Base Directory specification
module xml_entities

dom :: xml_entities

Basic blocks for DOM-XML representation
module xml_filter

sax :: xml_filter

Interface for an XML filter.
module xml_filter_impl

sax :: xml_filter_impl

Base class for deriving an XML filter.
module xml_reader

sax :: xml_reader

Interface for reading an XML document using callbacks.
module xor

crapto :: xor

Cryptographic attacks and utilities for XOR-based algorithms.
module xor_ciphers

crypto :: xor_ciphers

XOR oriented cryptographic ciphers and utilities.
# Input and output streams of characters
module stream

import error
intrude import bytes
import codecs

in "C" `{
	#include <unistd.h>
	#include <string.h>
	#include <signal.h>

# Any kind of error that could be produced by an operation on Streams
class IOError
	super Error

# Any kind of stream to read/write/both to or from a source
abstract class Stream
	# Codec used to transform raw data to text
	# Note: defaults to UTF-8
	var codec: Codec = utf8_codec is protected writable(set_codec)

	# Lookahead buffer for codecs
	# Since some codecs are multibyte, a lookahead may be required
	# to store the next bytes and consume them only if a valid character
	# is read.
	protected var lookahead: CString is noinit

	# Capacity of the lookahead
	protected var lookahead_capacity = 0

	# Current occupation of the lookahead
	protected var lookahead_length = 0

	# Buffer for writing data to a stream
	protected var write_buffer: CString is noinit

	init do
		var lcap = codec.max_lookahead
		lookahead = new CString(lcap)
		write_buffer = new CString(lcap)
		lookahead_length = 0
		lookahead_capacity = lcap

	# Change the codec for this stream.
	fun codec=(c: Codec) do
		if c.max_lookahead > lookahead_capacity then
			var lcap = codec.max_lookahead
			var lk = new CString(lcap)
			var llen = lookahead_length
			if llen > 0 then
				lookahead.copy_to(lk, llen, 0, 0)
			lookahead = lk
			lookahead_capacity = lcap
			write_buffer = new CString(lcap)

	# Error produced by the file stream
	#     var ifs = new"donotmakethisfile.binx")
	#     ifs.read_all
	#     ifs.close
	#     assert ifs.last_error != null
	var last_error: nullable IOError = null

	# close the stream
	fun close is abstract

	# Pre-work hook.
	# Used to inform `self` that operations will start.
	# Specific streams can use this to prepare some resources.
	# Is automatically invoked at the beginning of `with` structures.
	# Do nothing by default.
	fun start do end

	# Post-work hook.
	# Used to inform `self` that the operations are over.
	# Specific streams can use this to free some resources.
	# Is automatically invoked at the end of `with` structures.
	# call `close` by default.
	fun finish do close

# A `Stream` that can be read from
abstract class Reader
	super Stream

	# Read a byte directly from the underlying stream, without
	# considering any eventual buffer
	protected fun raw_read_byte: Int is abstract

	# Read at most `max` bytes from the underlying stream into `buf`,
	# without considering any eventual buffer
	# Returns how many bytes were read
	protected fun raw_read_bytes(buf: CString, max: Int): Int do
		var rd = 0
		for i in [0 .. max[ do
			var b = raw_read_byte
			if b < 0 then break
			buf[i] = b
			rd += 1
		return rd

	# Reads a character. Returns `null` on EOF or timeout
	# Returns unicode replacement character '�' if an
	# invalid byte sequence is read.
	# `read_char` may block if:
	# * No byte could be read from the current buffer
	# * An incomplete char is partially read, and more bytes are
	#   required for full decoding.
	fun read_char: nullable Char do
		if eof then return null
		var cod = codec
		var codet_sz = cod.codet_size
		var lk = lookahead
		var llen = lookahead_length
		if llen < codet_sz then
			llen += raw_read_bytes(lk.fast_cstring(llen), codet_sz - llen)
		if llen < codet_sz then
			lookahead_length = 0
			return 0xFFFD.code_point
		var ret = cod.is_valid_char(lk, codet_sz)
		var max_llen = cod.max_lookahead
		while ret == 1 and llen < max_llen do
			var rd = raw_read_bytes(lk.fast_cstring(llen), codet_sz)
			if rd < codet_sz then
				llen -= codet_sz
				if llen > 0 then
					lookahead.lshift(codet_sz, llen, codet_sz)
				lookahead_length = llen.max(0)
				return 0xFFFD.code_point
			llen += codet_sz
			ret = cod.is_valid_char(lk, llen)
		if ret == 0 then
			var c = cod.decode_char(lk)
			var clen = c.u8char_len
			llen -= clen
			if llen > 0 then
				lookahead.lshift(clen, llen, clen)
			lookahead_length = llen
			return c
		if ret == 2 or ret == 1 then
			llen -= codet_sz
			if llen > 0 then
				lookahead.lshift(codet_sz, llen, codet_sz)
			lookahead_length = llen
			return 0xFFFD.code_point
		# Should not happen if the decoder works properly
		var arr = new Array[Object]
		arr.push "Decoder error: could not decode nor recover from byte sequence ["
		for i in [0 .. llen[ do
			arr.push lk[i]
			arr.push ", "
		arr.push "]"
		var err = new IOError(arr.plain_to_s)
		err.cause = last_error
		last_error = err
		return 0xFFFD.code_point

	# Reads a byte. Returns a negative value on error
	fun read_byte: Int do
		var llen = lookahead_length
		if llen == 0 then return raw_read_byte
		var lk = lookahead
		var b = lk[0].to_i
		if llen == 1 then
			lookahead_length = 0
			lk.lshift(1, llen - 1, 1)
			lookahead_length -= 1
		return b

	# Reads a String of at most `i` length
	fun read(i: Int): String do
		assert i >= 0
		var cs = new CString(i)
		var rd = read_bytes_to_cstring(cs, i)
		if rd < 0 then return ""
		return codec.decode_string(cs, rd)

	# Reads up to `max` bytes from source
	fun read_bytes(max: Int): Bytes do
		assert max >= 0
		var cs = new CString(max)
		var rd = read_bytes_to_cstring(cs, max)
		return new Bytes(cs, rd, max)

	# Reads up to `max` bytes from source and stores them in `bytes`
	fun read_bytes_to_cstring(bytes: CString, max: Int): Int do
		var llen = lookahead_length
		if llen == 0 then return raw_read_bytes(bytes, max)
		var rd = max.min(llen)
		var lk = lookahead
		lk.copy_to(bytes, rd, 0, 0)
		if rd < llen then
			lk.lshift(rd, llen - rd, rd)
			lookahead_length -= rd
			lookahead_length = 0
		return rd + raw_read_bytes(bytes.fast_cstring(rd), max - rd)

	# Read a string until the end of the line.
	# The line terminator '\n' and '\r\n', if any, is removed in each line.
	# ~~~
	# var txt = "Hello\n\nWorld\n"
	# var i = new StringReader(txt)
	# assert i.read_line == "Hello"
	# assert i.read_line == ""
	# assert i.read_line == "World"
	# assert i.eof
	# ~~~
	# Only LINE FEED (`\n`), CARRIAGE RETURN & LINE FEED (`\r\n`), and
	# the end or file (EOF) is considered to delimit the end of lines.
	# CARRIAGE RETURN (`\r`) alone is not used for the end of line.
	# ~~~
	# var txt2 = "Hello\r\n\n\rWorld"
	# var i2 = new StringReader(txt2)
	# assert i2.read_line == "Hello"
	# assert i2.read_line == ""
	# assert i2.read_line == "\rWorld"
	# assert i2.eof
	# ~~~
	# NOTE: Use `append_line_to` if the line terminator needs to be preserved.
	fun read_line: String
		if last_error != null then return ""
		if eof then return ""
		var s = new FlatBuffer
		return s.to_s.chomp

	# Read all the lines until the eof.
	# The line terminator '\n' and `\r\n` is removed in each line,
	# ~~~
	# var txt = "Hello\n\nWorld\n"
	# var i = new StringReader(txt)
	# assert i.read_lines == ["Hello", "", "World"]
	# ~~~
	# This method is more efficient that splitting
	# the result of `read_all`.
	# NOTE: SEE `read_line` for details.
	fun read_lines: Array[String]
		var res = new Array[String]
		while not eof do
			res.add read_line
		return res

	# Return an iterator that read each line.
	# The line terminator '\n' and `\r\n` is removed in each line,
	# The line are read with `read_line`. See this method for details.
	# ~~~
	# var txt = "Hello\n\nWorld\n"
	# var i = new StringReader(txt)
	# assert i.each_line.to_a == ["Hello", "", "World"]
	# ~~~
	# Unlike `read_lines` that read all lines at the call, `each_line` is lazy.
	# Therefore, the stream should no be closed until the end of the stream.
	# ~~~
	# i = new StringReader(txt)
	# var el = i.each_line
	# assert el.item == "Hello"
	# assert el.item == ""
	# i.close
	# assert not el.is_ok
	# # closed before "world" is read
	# ~~~
	fun each_line: LineIterator do return new LineIterator(self)

	# Read all the stream until the eof.
	# The content of the file is returned as a String.
	# ~~~
	# var txt = "Hello\n\nWorld\n"
	# var i = new StringReader(txt)
	# assert i.read_all == txt
	# ~~~
	fun read_all: String do
		var s = read_all_bytes
		var slen = s.length
		if slen == 0 then return ""
		return codec.decode_string(s.items, s.length)

	# Read all the stream until the eof.
	# The content of the file is returned verbatim.
	fun read_all_bytes: Bytes
		if last_error != null then return new Bytes.empty
		var s = new Bytes.empty
		var buf = new CString(4096)
		while not eof do
			var rd = read_bytes_to_cstring(buf, 4096)
			s.append_ns(buf, rd)
		return s

	# Read a string until the end of the line and append it to `s`.
	# Unlike `read_line` and other related methods,
	# the line terminator '\n', if any, is preserved in each line.
	# Use the method `Text::chomp` to safely remove it.
	# ~~~
	# var txt = "Hello\n\nWorld\n"
	# var i = new StringReader(txt)
	# var b = new FlatBuffer
	# i.append_line_to(b)
	# assert b == "Hello\n"
	# i.append_line_to(b)
	# assert b == "Hello\n\n"
	# i.append_line_to(b)
	# assert b == txt
	# assert i.eof
	# ~~~
	# If `\n` is not present at the end of the result, it means that
	# a non-eol terminated last line was returned.
	# ~~~
	# var i2 = new StringReader("hello")
	# assert not i2.eof
	# var b2 = new FlatBuffer
	# i2.append_line_to(b2)
	# assert b2 == "hello"
	# assert i2.eof
	# ~~~
	# NOTE: The single character LINE FEED (`\n`) delimits the end of lines.
	# Therefore CARRIAGE RETURN & LINE FEED (`\r\n`) is also recognized.
	fun append_line_to(s: Buffer)
		if last_error != null then return
			var x = read_char
			if x == null then
				if eof then return
				if x == '\n' then return

	# Is there something to read.
	# This function returns 'false' if there is something to read.
	fun eof: Bool do
		if lookahead_length > 0 then return false
		lookahead_length = raw_read_bytes(lookahead, 1)
		return lookahead_length <= 0

	# Read the next sequence of non whitespace characters.
	# Leading whitespace characters are skipped.
	# The first whitespace character that follows the result is consumed.
	# An empty string is returned if the end of the file or an error is encounter.
	# ~~~
	# var w = new StringReader(" Hello, \n\t World!")
	# assert w.read_word == "Hello,"
	# assert w.read_char == '\n'
	# assert w.read_word == "World!"
	# assert w.read_word == ""
	# ~~~
	# `Char::is_whitespace` determines what is a whitespace.
	fun read_word: String
		var buf = new FlatBuffer
		var c = read_nonwhitespace
		if c != null then
			while not eof do
				c = read_char
				if c == null then break
				if c.is_whitespace then break
		var res = buf.to_s
		return res

	# Skip whitespace characters (if any) then return the following non-whitespace character.
	# Returns the code point of the character.
	# Returns `null` on end of file or error.
	# In fact, this method works like `read_char` except it skips whitespace.
	# ~~~
	# var w = new StringReader(" \nab\tc")
	# assert w.read_nonwhitespace == 'a'
	# assert w.read_nonwhitespace == 'b'
	# assert w.read_nonwhitespace == 'c'
	# assert w.read_nonwhitespace == null
	# ~~~
	# `Char::is_whitespace` determines what is a whitespace.
	fun read_nonwhitespace: nullable Char
		var c: nullable Char = null
		while not eof do
			c = read_char
			if c == null or not c.is_whitespace then break
		return c

# Iterator returned by `Reader::each_line`.
# See the aforementioned method for details.
class LineIterator
	super CachedIterator[String]

	# The original stream
	var stream: Reader

	redef fun next_item
		if stream.eof then
			if close_on_finish then stream.close
			return null
		return stream.read_line

	# Close the stream when the stream is at the EOF.
	# Default is false.
	var close_on_finish = false is writable

	redef fun finish
		if close_on_finish then stream.close

# `Reader` capable of declaring if readable without blocking
abstract class PollableReader
	super Reader

	# Is there something to read? (without blocking)
	fun poll_in: Bool is abstract


# A `Stream` that can be written to
abstract class Writer
	super Stream

	# Write bytes from `s`
	fun write_bytes(s: Bytes) do write_bytes_from_cstring(s.items, s.length)

	# Write `len` bytes from `ns`
	fun write_bytes_from_cstring(ns: CString, len: Int) is abstract

	# Write a string
	fun write(s: Text) is abstract

	# Write a single byte
	fun write_byte(value: Int) is abstract

	# Write a single char
	fun write_char(c: Char) do
		var ln = codec.add_char_to(c, write_buffer)
		write_bytes_from_cstring(write_buffer, ln)

	# Can the stream be used to write
	fun is_writable: Bool is abstract

# Things that can be efficienlty written to a `Writer`
# The point of this interface is to allow the instance to be efficiently
# written into a `Writer`.
# Ready-to-save documents usually provide this interface.
interface Writable
	# Write itself to a `stream`
	# The specific logic it let to the concrete subclasses
	fun write_to(stream: Writer) is abstract

	# Like `write_to` but return a new String (may be quite large).
	# This functionality is anecdotal, since the point
	# of a streamable object is to be efficiently written to a
	# stream without having to allocate and concatenate strings.
	fun write_to_string: String
		var stream = new StringWriter
		return stream.to_s

	# Like `write_to` but return a new Bytes (may be quite large)
	# This functionality is anecdotal, since the point
	# of a streamable object is to be efficiently written to a
	# stream without having to allocate and concatenate buffers.
	# Nevertheless, you might need this method if you want to know
	# the byte size of a writable object.
	fun write_to_bytes: Bytes
		var stream = new BytesWriter
		return stream.bytes

redef class Bytes
	super Writable
	redef fun write_to(s) do s.write_bytes(self)

	redef fun write_to_string do return to_s

redef class Text
	super Writable
	redef fun write_to(stream) do stream.write(self)

# A `Stream` that can be written to and read from
abstract class Duplex
	super Reader
	super Writer

# Write to `bytes` in memory
# ~~~
# var writer = new BytesWriter
# writer.write "Strings "
# writer.write_char '&'
# writer.write_byte 0x20
# writer.write_bytes "bytes".to_bytes
# assert writer.to_s == "\\x53\\x74\\x72\\x69\\x6E\\x67\\x73\\x20\\x26\\x20\\x62\\x79\\x74\\x65\\x73"
# assert writer.bytes.to_s == "Strings & bytes"
# ~~~
# As with any binary data, UTF-8 code points encoded on two bytes or more
# can be constructed byte by byte.
# ~~~
# writer = new BytesWriter
# # Write just the character first half
# writer.write_byte 0xC2
# assert writer.to_s == "\\xC2"
# assert writer.bytes.to_s == "�"
# # Complete the character
# writer.write_byte 0xA2
# assert writer.to_s == "\\xC2\\xA2"
# assert writer.bytes.to_s == "¢"
# ~~~
class BytesWriter
	super Writer

	# Written memory
	var bytes = new Bytes.empty

	redef fun to_s do return bytes.chexdigest

	redef fun write(str)
		if closed then return
		str.append_to_bytes bytes

	redef fun write_char(c)
		if closed then return
		bytes.add_char c

	redef fun write_byte(value)
		if closed then return
		bytes.add value

	redef fun write_bytes_from_cstring(ns, len) do
		if closed then return
		bytes.append_ns(ns, len)

	# Is the stream closed?
	protected var closed = false

	redef fun close do closed = true
	redef fun is_writable do return not closed

# `Stream` writing to a `String`
# This class has the same behavior as `BytesWriter`
# except for `to_s` which decodes `bytes` to a string.
# ~~~
# var writer = new StringWriter
# writer.write "Strings "
# writer.write_char '&'
# writer.write_byte 0x20
# writer.write_bytes "bytes".to_bytes
# assert writer.to_s == "Strings & bytes"
# ~~~
class StringWriter
	super BytesWriter

	redef fun to_s do return bytes.to_s

# Read from `bytes` in memory
# ~~~
# var reader = new BytesReader(b"a…b")
# assert reader.read_char == 'a'
# assert reader.read_byte == 0xE2 # 1st byte of '…'
# assert reader.read_byte == 0x80 # 2nd byte of '…'
# assert reader.read_char == '�' # Reads the last byte as an invalid char
# assert reader.read_all_bytes == b"b"
# ~~~
class BytesReader
	super Reader

	# Source data to read
	var bytes: Bytes

	# The current position in `bytes`
	private var cursor = 0

	redef fun raw_read_byte
		if cursor >= bytes.length then return -1

		var c = bytes[cursor]
		cursor += 1
		return c.to_i

	redef fun close do bytes = new Bytes.empty

	redef fun read_all_bytes
		var res = bytes.slice_from(cursor)
		cursor = bytes.length
		return res

	redef fun raw_read_bytes(ns, max) do
		if cursor >= bytes.length then return 0

		var copy = max.min(bytes.length - cursor)
		bytes.items.copy_to(ns, copy, cursor, 0)
		cursor += copy
		return copy

	redef fun eof do return cursor >= bytes.length

# `Stream` reading from a `String` source
# This class has the same behavior as `BytesReader`
# except for its constructor accepting a `String`.
# ~~~
# var reader = new StringReader("a…b")
# assert reader.read_char == 'a'
# assert reader.read_byte == 0xE2 # 1st byte of '…'
# assert reader.read_byte == 0x80 # 2nd byte of '…'
# assert reader.read_char == '�' # Reads the last byte as an invalid char
# assert reader.read_all == "b"
# ~~~
class StringReader
	super BytesReader

	autoinit source

	# Source data to read
	var source: String

	init do bytes = source.to_bytes

	redef fun close
		source = ""